Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Discuss Stevensons portrayal of the nature of good and evil and the dual nature of mans personality Essay Example for Free
Discuss Stevensons portrayal of the nature of good and evil and the dual nature of mans personality Essay Question- Discuss Stevensons portrayal of the nature of good and evil and the dual nature of mans personality. What does this show us about Stevensons view of Victorian Britain? Born into the middle-class, prosperous district of new Edinburgh in Scotland, 1850, the young Robert Louis Stevensons life was a existence of opposites and contradictions. Just a few miles from his homeland lay the slums of old Edinburgh- a destitute sprawl of old urban living, disease and vice widespread and all to common. The young Master Stevenson was forbidden from this area, instead confined to his bedroom with his fanatic religious nanny- largely in part to his poor health and fragile immune system. His nanny, Alison Cunningham, was a devout Calvinist, a religion with a mixture of both Christian and Folk religion ideals. Calvinism teaches that every human being is born into sin, and thus must take it upon themselves to seek God, going against their natural inclination. This rule, entitled Total Depravity, was taught to the young Stevenson by his nanny, therefore leading the young seven year old to question his every step, paving the way for horrific nightmares of Hell and the fury of the Devil. As Stevenson grew up he found himself swept up in the cultural revolution that was Bohemianism. A now teenage Stevenson found himself attending raucous parties and living a second hand existence in near poverty, as what was expected from any bohemian person. He also found himself increasingly attached to the bottle and, on more then one occasion, visited prostitutes- an act that was seen as greatly immoral in the Victorian era and an action that would certainly have shocked his nanny. This deliberate act of rebellion shocked his parents and they temporarily disowned him and, although, Stevenson kept his attitudes and dislike of religion, the fall-out with his parents made him question the gulf in lifestyle that he and his parents had and the arguments also led him to question just what was right, and what was evil. Whilst travelling Stevenson met a certain Fanny Osborne, a women both older then him and already married. They had a short lived affair before Osborne absconded, leaving her husband for the young Stevenson and the couple soon wed. Second marriages were considered a taboo topic in the Victorian era, and Stevenson once again found himself branded as evil and ignorant, further stimulating Stevensons mind on right and wrong. Stevensons first wrote The strange case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde in 1885 and the book was released a year later. Rumour has it that Stevenson wrote the book whilst heavily drugged; the author had a considerable liking of Cocaine, a mind-altering drug. The drug would have momentarily changed his perceptions and view on the world, and this is perhaps reflected in the book, further strengthening the divide that was beginning to shape his book. The book was fairly popular yet drew heavy criticism from some scholars who read the book as an allegory of inappropriate sexual desires. At the time Stevenson re-buffed the ideas, through fear of the popularity of his book diminishing, but he later admitted that the book could be read as an allegory of the troubles of Victorian society. There are many themes that run deep through Stevensons novella, all centred around the line that divides good and evil. This topic of morality particularly fascinated the Victorian audience, largely thanks to the strength of the British Empire. The common Londoners heard tales of strange, far-away lands and peculiar, ritual-abiding tribes man and started to question their own rituals and actions. Stevensons book tapped into this market, asking whether what was considered good and evil was good and evil everywhere, or whether different people had different opinions on the difficult and dividing topic. Stevensons story begins with The story of the door, an opening chapter which tells the friendship of Mr Utterson and Mr Enfield, two respectable men who refuse to indulge in the spread of gossip. However they eventually begin to discuss the indecent trampling of a small girl, committed by a mysterious, twisted man, later named as Hyde. The fact that Hyde is introduced before Jekyll keeps the character of Mr Hyde fresh in the mind, and the irregular pattern (time-frame) of the book leads to the resulting conclusion being even more startling, especially for the Victorian audience who wouldnt have expected anything similar to the actual ending. The chapter is also rich in subtle foreshadowing of opposition and restraint. He was austere with himself; drank gin when he was alone, to mortify a taste for vintages;, is a perfect example of Stevensons subtle touch. The fact that Utterson drank Gin when alone, a drink regarded at the time as a poor-mans drink, a drink that was crude and often associated with criminals and vice, to quench his thirst, nay, desire for rich wine represents Jekylls attitude towards Hyde: Jekyll deliberately starves himself of the drug he slowly becomes addicted to, the drug that turns himself into Hyde despite despising Hyde with every bone in his body. Yet Jekyll still feels a craving for the drug and has to substitute himself with other activitys, despite his attempts at distraction resulting in vain. The setting and atmosphere of Enfields recollection of the night when he first met Hyde also reflects the duality of man, a crucial aspect in Stevensons book. A black winter morningthere was literally nothing but lamps being a prime example of this. This abnormal lighting situation would produce shadows- the shadows representing the underclass of London society, the people that would hug street walls late at night, trying desperately not to be seen as they went about their shady business. The natural image of the black winter morning also juxtaposes the artificial light of the lamps, depicting the fact that, in the Victorian era, the citizens were always trying to triumph over nature, attempting to create social standards that even Mother Nature abided to. The stark contrast between dark and light is almost ignored in this quote, as the blackness of the night and the brightness of the lamps merge seamlessly into one another, thus representing Enfields confusion. This confusion is epitomised by the quote: I got into the state of mind when a man listens and listens and belongs to long for the sight of a policeman,. Enfield states his nervousness and longing for a policeman, a rather unusual trait as the Metropolitan Police Force was still in its infancy and battling many an unfavourable opinion. Also the character was earlier described as a rather dull man, the man about town, an experienced figure who had seen just about every city occurrence. Yet here Stevenson describes him as worried and nervous, determined to find a member of the establishment that was so untrusted around town. As well as this Stevenson implies that he character can sense something is wrong; he has potentially sourced the overbearing threat of Mr Hyde. This demonstrates the main antagonists intimidating nature before we are even introduced to him. This fear of the unknown could be related to Stevensons upbringing, surrounded by religion and threat of the Devil. In Christianity, and Calvinism, the Devil is both feared and yet paradoxically respected. His fundamentalist Nanny would have taught him of the threat of the Devil and also of the reason why the Devil was cast into Heaven (most prominently for failing to understand that he was created by God (that he had a dual nature)). This links in with Hydes nature and internal struggle- he can never fully become Jekyll because he was created BY Jekyll. The quote: like a forest in a fire is a good example of Stevensons views on current society and the changing world that was revolving around him. The simile is used to emphasise the differences between the old, poor row of houses and the new, upper class street- no doubt a product of the industrial revolution that was currently sweeping the country. Forests contain nothing but wood, and the single most dangerous thing one could encounter in a forest is fire, where the spitting flames spread from tree to tree. The simile could be linked to the Victorian industrial revolution: Stevenson views it as a hungry flame, sweeping away all of natures beauty and all of what the world used to comprise of, for now metal and steel is starting to replace the natural woods used to build shelter, and trees were being cut down to feed machines, which spat out new inventions and ideas. The quote has a negative edge relating to the industrial revolution, which fits in with Stevensons lifestyle and ethics. For he was a romanticist, a bohemian- interested in the preservation of nature, which they believed directly fed and influenced literature, poetry and art. The quote symbolises the divide that the industrial revolution was creating, and also questions whether the industrial revolution is good or bad, similarly to how the main theme of the book questions whether humans truly are good or evil. The second chapter, entitled The Search for Mr. Hyde continues with some important quotations regarding the duality of man, It was his custom of a Sunday, when this meal was over, to sit close by the fire, a volume of some dry divinity, being one of these. The dry divinity means a religious book or text, and the reading of these kinds of texts was considered a honourable and dutiful act in the Victorian era. However Utterson describes the text as dry- he finds it boring, dull. Thus the quote informs us that Utterson sticks to conventional Victorian traditionalism, yet aches with boredom in doing so. He yearns to be doing something else, somewhere else but feels compelled to follow his upstanding Sunday custom. This is typical of Victorian society and a crucial element of understanding the duality of man. For the Victorians tried to quench mans natural instinct and mould him into a figure they determined respectable. Yet in pushing, in repressing people so far man rebelled, and began to question the life he lived under, leading to all of the Victorian vices, sex, alcohol and homosexuality becoming acceptable. Indeed, if it wasnt for the Victorians oppression of the minority and the poor we probably wouldnt be living in such a free society. The usage of pathetic fallacy is a common and important tool in Stevensons novella. The fog increases in depth and prominence whenever Hyde is near , and the fog clears towards the end of the story when the mystery is close to being unravelled. the first fog of the season, a great chocolate coloured pall lowered over the heavens is a quote from the chapter: The Carew Murder Case and the use of pathetic fallacy has connotations of impending danger as well as connotations of the industrial revolution. The chocolate coloured essence of the fog has implications of the industrial revolution poisoning the fog, changing its colour and also the times when the fog appears. The fog is stated as being the first of the season, yet the timeline would mean the fog was unnaturally early, implying the industrial revolution is harming and manipulating Mother Nature. The fog could be interpreted as nothing more then smog, a poisonous relation of the cleaner and more natural fog. The relationship between the unnatural smog, produced by the industrial revolution and the natural fog could also be linked to the relationship between Jekyll and Hyde; Hyde is a less natural side effect of Jekylls curiosity, Hyde is the poisonous, dangerous aspect of Jekyll. Jekyll could be interpreted as the influence of nature on Victorian society, an old-fashioned traditionalist being poisoned by new ideas and new beliefs. The murder of Sir Danvers Carew is an important part of the book, and Stevensons description adds to the sense of confusion and fear that is created. We are fed the murder from the viewpoint of a maid who was romantically given just before the crime was committed. he was trampling his victim under footunder which the bones were audibly shattered and the body jumped upon the roadway is an extract from the murder description. The description is vivid, Stevenson notes how the maid heard the bones shatter, surely an awful, sickening sound. The murder is incredibly violent, representing Hydes anger boiling to the surface- alas; the exact reason for the murder is never truly revealed, leading us to think that Hyde needs violence to satisfy himself when he is allowed to roam free. The phrase the body jumped upon the roadway is also an interesting use of language, possibly representing the violence of the act; the body has been hit and abused so hard it is physically moving away from Hyde, his blows have pushed it away. The phrase adds to the sense of strength Hyde possesses, making him an even more formidable character. with indescribable amazement read the name of Gabriel John Utterson We first learn the full name of Utterson in The Last Night, after Jekyll puts his name on his will. His name could be interpreted as some as incredibly significant to the story. There are many religious connotations in Stevensons novella, and Uttersons first name could be another of these connotations. In the religion of Christianity, Gabriel is the arch-angel of God, and Gods chief messenger. He passes on messages from God to various biblical figures, giving him the title of Gods medium. His role in Christianity is similar to Gabriel John Uttersons in the Strange Case of Dr.Jekyll and Mr.Hyde, he retells messages between Lanyon and Jekyll, and also uncovers the truth by reading messages intended as replies to another. Uttersons first name also reveal his good side- he is a constant friend to Dr. Jekyll throughout the novella. Nearly every member of the reading Victorian audience would be familiar with the arch-angel Gabriel, and many readers would have made the link between the two messengers. Stevenson could also of used Uttersons name as a way of stating that not everyone caught up in evil, is evil. Utterson is confronted with pure, undiluted evil a number of times in the story but he never once loses his sense of moral decency or moral fibre. The final chapter in Stevenson story contains the most information regarding the duality of man. The final chapter is in chronological order- right from Jekylls childhood to his death. The chapter also informs us of how Jekyll grew up harbouring an evil side. Hence it came about that I concealed my pleasures being an example of his youthful, dual personality. A youthful Jekyll realises that, once one enters manhood and the adult world one must learn to conceal any hope or joyfulness for fear of be let down by society or taken advantage of. So we learn that, even from childhood, Jekyll is living a lie and hiding his split personality from the world. I was in no sense a hypocrite; both sides of me were in dead earnest is an example of a slightly older Jekylls newly stifled personality. He has forced down his natural, animal-like instincts and replaced them with an acceptable, Victorian type attitude. He has learnt to ignore his impulse and instead confer to Victorian era conformity. He has become emotionally repressed and, whilst he is coping at the minute there will always be a threat of his emotions bubbling over in a Jack the Ripper type emergence. My Devil had been long caged, it came out roaringInstantly the spirit of Hell awoke in me and raged is an example of such an outburst. We know from the story that a drug causes Jekylls evil side to emerge but the warning Stevenson writes of is that anybody can be unleashed, any human has the potential to be a crazed mass-murderer, or an evil psychopath if pushed (or oppressed) hard enough. This would of hit a chord with the reading audience who were still recovering from the Jack the Ripper attacks, which left many Londoners wondering just what kind of person could commit such crimes. The answer? Anybody- for the Victorian style of living had the potential to depress, oppress and ultimately, end lives Overall, I believe Stevenson wrote The Strange Case of Dr.Jekyll and Mr.Hyde as a warning to the Victorian reader. He wanted the audience to realise that everyone, regardless of social stature, finance or credibility, had the potential to be evil. Yet, in his novella, Stevenson almost determines that there is no real definition of good and evil. The human body is a complex machine and, like a snowflake, the human body changes with each individual. Humans realise and readily accept that every human has different fingerprints yet seems to find it harder to link this fact with the human brain. For ultimately, every single human is different thus the guidelines of good and evil change with every single person. And, ultimately, who are we to question who is good and who is evil? There are thousands of different religions, what if they are all wrong and the one, true religion (if there is one) actually determines evil as good, and good as evil. We are just mere mortals, and the human brain is the most complex thing on the planet. Before we even begin to scrape the surface of this complex machine, we must first begin to understand the secrets of the universe, and life. Any intelligent fool can make things bigger, more complex, and more violent. It takes a touch of genius and a lot of courage to move in the opposite direction. So said Albert Einstein, one of the greatest thinkers of the twentieth century. I believe that this quote sums up Stevensons approach to the dividing line between good and evil. For where other people of the age, fresh from the horrors of the Ripper murders, strived to find a logical answer to the line between good and evil, Stevenson instead moved in the opposite direction. Rather then attempt to answer the question, he questioned the question, asking whether there was an answer to a question that people were still questioning. After all, how can one answer a question that is not even based on fact, or truth, but instead on prediction? Stevensons opinion on religion is prevalent throughout the story. The story has a number of biblical links, no doubt harking back to the days he spent locked in his room with Alison Cunningham, whilst being fed awful stories of Hell and the Devil. There are a number of religious links, one of these being: This inexplicable incident, this reversal of my previous experience, seemed, like the Babylonian finger on the wall, to be spelling out the letters of my judgment. This quote mirrors the experience of Prince Belshazzar, a Babylonian prince featured in the book of Daniel. The prince, whilst dining one night, sees a mysterious, disembodied hand floating behind him. As he turned to face it, the hand begun writing in a mysterious code, on the wall. A translator later interpreted the coded writing as: Thou art weighed In the balance and art found wanting. Later that night Belshazzar is murdered in peculiar circumstances, hence the popular saying; the writing on the wall. Jekyll can see his impending doom, due to his evil exploits as Hyde but his good side is still portrayed by Stevenson, the use of religion is used for this. In the book, I believe Stevenson uses religion as a writing technique; when Stevenson wants to signify the emotive nature of people , he uses religious links and connotations. Hyde is forever associated with Hell and the Devil, whilst Jekyll and Utterson is associated with Gabriel, and the light side of religion. Religion is used to measure and signify, to compare and contrast. Religion also represents a divide in beliefs and personality. The end of the Victorian era was the first time, since the beginning of Christianity, that people were beginning to question and doubt religion. Jekyll and Hyde was penned during this time and concerns itself with the duality of man. Stevenson simply used the biggest cultural divide of the day: religion, and weaved it into his book, making the theme of duality more relevant to the reading Victorian audience. Overall, The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde questions and challenges what would have been conventional beliefs in the Victorian era. It makes the reader question his own sense of right and wrong, and challenges religion and science- the two cultures that were so opposed to each other in the Victorian ere. It incorporates the depression that surrounded the Victorian dynasty, the industrial revolution, the Jack the Ripper murders and the strict conformity of living the Victorians imposed. But it also includes the first green shoots of hope that began to surface around the late 1800s- Charles Darwins The Theory of Evolution is integrated through Jekylls science and the fact that Jekyll, despite through the persona of Hyde, engaged in activities such as sex and alcoholism sent the message that man can experiment, as long as it didnt threaten or harm anyone else. The book was aware of the duality and diversity of its audience and revelled in this. Stevensons book was a revolution in itself. For it changed the conventional type of living and made people question the rules they lived under. And any book that can influence people on this scale is a rare, and beautiful, thing. The mark of a good action is that it appears inevitable in retrospect.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world material goods make a big contribution to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s image and social status. A wealthy, financially stable person could walk down a street wearing an old pair of jeans and a rugged tee shirt and be taken as a middle-to-low-class person. On the contrary, a middle-class woman could wear her only Custo Barcelona dress and carry her only Louis Vuitton handbag and be viewed as a being with excess wealth and prosperity. Brand images are significant elements of American culture, and they continue to make a statement as prominent products of graphic design. Brands are series of logos, names, slogans, designs, and/or sounds that communicate to people what the company, product, or service in question stands for. Though the main aim of a brand is to develop trust and satisfaction with customers and supporters, people develop their own idea of what this representation may include after experiencing the product for themselves. As more people experience the product and word of the product is spread through society, the brand image becomes synonymous with the product. Some brand images have become so well known that they can be displayed somewhere irrelevant to the product and still are successfully able to convey a message to viewers. A brand is of utmost importance in advertising, and it is essential to develop a brand image early in a productÃ¢â¬â¢s life in order to assure that the image will be known for the remainder of time the company or product is in existence. Some companies or products pay companies with previously established brand images to use for their brand image and establish their own brand image. These companies use the existing brand images because certain qualities are associated with these brands. O... ...ed through these products since the advertisement shows Ã¢â¬Å"a successful personÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"the good lifeÃ¢â¬ . They are not really fulfilling the good life or being a successful person, they are buying a brand that represents the good life or a successful person (HBS). Branding is something that will never go away as long as there are things to sell. If branding didnÃ¢â¬â¢t exist and people bought products on impulse, companies would find it difficult to sell their products and services. The loyalty that branding produces makes it easier and more efficient for companies to survive. Branding is essential to companies because of the way society operates, through association of ideals to products. As long as companies continue to intensify their image and relate to desirable conditions, people will continue to buy their products and services, and businesses will continue to strive. The Development of Brands and Branding Essay -- Advertising In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world material goods make a big contribution to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s image and social status. A wealthy, financially stable person could walk down a street wearing an old pair of jeans and a rugged tee shirt and be taken as a middle-to-low-class person. On the contrary, a middle-class woman could wear her only Custo Barcelona dress and carry her only Louis Vuitton handbag and be viewed as a being with excess wealth and prosperity. Brand images are significant elements of American culture, and they continue to make a statement as prominent products of graphic design. Brands are series of logos, names, slogans, designs, and/or sounds that communicate to people what the company, product, or service in question stands for. Though the main aim of a brand is to develop trust and satisfaction with customers and supporters, people develop their own idea of what this representation may include after experiencing the product for themselves. As more people experience the product and word of the product is spread through society, the brand image becomes synonymous with the product. Some brand images have become so well known that they can be displayed somewhere irrelevant to the product and still are successfully able to convey a message to viewers. A brand is of utmost importance in advertising, and it is essential to develop a brand image early in a productÃ¢â¬â¢s life in order to assure that the image will be known for the remainder of time the company or product is in existence. Some companies or products pay companies with previously established brand images to use for their brand image and establish their own brand image. These companies use the existing brand images because certain qualities are associated with these brands. O... ...ed through these products since the advertisement shows Ã¢â¬Å"a successful personÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"the good lifeÃ¢â¬ . They are not really fulfilling the good life or being a successful person, they are buying a brand that represents the good life or a successful person (HBS). Branding is something that will never go away as long as there are things to sell. If branding didnÃ¢â¬â¢t exist and people bought products on impulse, companies would find it difficult to sell their products and services. The loyalty that branding produces makes it easier and more efficient for companies to survive. Branding is essential to companies because of the way society operates, through association of ideals to products. As long as companies continue to intensify their image and relate to desirable conditions, people will continue to buy their products and services, and businesses will continue to strive.
Monday, January 13, 2020
The power of language to reflect culture and influence thinking was first proposed by an American linguist and anthropologist, Edward Sapir (1884Ã¢â¬â1939), and his student, Benjamin Whorf (1897Ã¢â¬â1941). The SapirÃ¢â¬âWhorf hypothesis stated that the way we think and view the world is determined by our language (Anderson & Lightfoot, 2002; Crystal, 1987; Hayes, Ornstein, & Gage, 1987). Instances of cultural language differences are evidenced in that some languages have specific words for concepts whereas other languages use several words to represent a specific concept. For example, the Arabic language includes many specific words for designating a certain type of horse or camel (Crystal, 1987). To make such distinctions in English, where specific words do not exist, adjectives would be used preceding the concept label, such as quarter horse or dray horse. Cultural differences have also been noted in the ways in which language is used pragmatically. In our American culture, new skills are typically taught and learned through verbal instruction (Slobin, 1979). In some cultures, new skills are learned through nonverbal observation. A distinction has also been made between cultures that encourage independent learning and those that encourage cooperative learning (McLeod, 1994). Differences in the social roles of adults and children also influence how language is used. Home and school contexts may represent different cultures, subcultures, or both and may influence language acquisition in noticeable ways. Nonverbal cues (e. g. , facial expression) and contextual cues (e. g. , shared experience) have different communicative roles in different cultures (Kaiser & Rasminsky, 2003). In some cultures, prelinguistic children (who are not yet verbalizing) are spoken about rather than spoken to (Heath, 1983). Children may be expected, and thus taught, to speak only when an adult addresses them. They are not encouraged to initiate conversations with adults or to join spontaneously in ongoing adult conversations. Additionally, in some cultures, children who enthusiastically volunteer answers at school are considered show-offs (Peregoy & Boyle, 1993). In some cultural settings, children are not asked recitational questions. Instead, they are asked only questions of clarification or for new information. Thus, when these children experience recitational questions in a school setting, they may be confused as to the purpose of the questioning and the expected response. Further cultural differences in how language is used in educational settings have been documented by Tharp (1994). These differences include variations in how stories are told, the wait time given by teachers to students during questioning sequences, the rhythmic patterns of the verbal interactions, and the patterns of conversational turn-taking. During the 1970s and 1980s, educators and linguists researched and debated the verbal-deficit perspective. This perspective contended that anyone who did not use standard English did not have a valid language and thus was verbally deficient. Although the verbal-deficit perspective has now been proven invalid, it is important to understand the research that was conducted to either support or discredit that perspective. Bernstein (1971), Bereiter and Englemann (1966), and Labov (1979) were among the researchers who studied language differences between different social groups, including middle- and lower-income groups and ethnic groups. This body of research identified specific differences in the way children from different socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds used language in school and out-of-school settings. Implications of this research have been widely discussed and interpreted in a variety of ways. Basil Bernstein (1971) documented the different linguistic codes used by children from lower- and middle-income families in England. Lower-income children were described as using a Ã¢â¬Å"restricted codeÃ¢â¬ or highly contextualized language, while children from middle-income families used an Ã¢â¬Å"elaborated code,Ã¢â¬ or decontextualized language. His research also documented differences in school achievement for these two groups of children. Interpretations of BernsteinÃ¢â¬â¢s work concluded a causeÃ¢â¬âeffect relation between language use and school success, supporting a Ã¢â¬Å"verbal deficitÃ¢â¬ perspective: the working-class environment of the low-income children created a verbal deficiency responsible for subsequent low educational achievement (Winch, 1990). Here in the United States, Bereiter and Englemann (1966) conducted further research from the verbal-deficit perspective. They focused on the language of preschool African American children in Urbana, Illinois. Bereiter and Engleman concluded that the language used by African American children was not a valid language and thus recommended that these children needed to be taught English in the school setting (Winch, 1990). Academically oriented preschool curricula were developed (e. g. , Blank, Rose, & Berlin, 1978) to provide the needed English language training for verbally deficient children. William Labov (1979; Winch, 1990) explored social dialects of lower income African American children in urban settings. He studied the differences in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s in-school and out-of-school (e. g. , playground) language competencies. His data directly challenged the verbal-deficit theory because it documented the elaborated and systematic linguistic properties of Black English. His research supported the idea that Black English was a separate language system with its own grammar and rules. Labov described dialects as having Ã¢â¬Å"slightly different versions of the same rules, extending and modifying the grammatical processes which are common to all dialects of EnglishÃ¢â¬ (Labov, 1995, p.54). LabovÃ¢â¬â¢s research supported the idea that verbal differences are not verbal deficits. Because LabovÃ¢â¬â¢s research focused on language used in academic and nonschool settings, he also created a greater awareness of the role of context and dialect in communication. Tough (1977) conducted a longitudinal study of children from advantaged (college-educated, professional parents) and disadvantaged (parents who were in unskilled or semiskilled occupations) homes. The study began when the children were 3 years old, with follow-up at 5 1? 2 and 7 1? 2 years. At age 3, the disadvantaged children and the advantaged children showed significant differences in the ways they used language. Specifically, the disadvantaged children did not use language to recall and give details of prior experiences, anticipate upcoming events and possible outcomes, reason about current and remembered events, problem solve using language for planning and considering alternatives, reach solutions, create and sustain dramatic play events, and understand othersÃ¢â¬â¢ experiences and feelings. When these children were studied again at 5 1? 2 and 7 1? 2 years, the disadvantaged children produced shorter, less complex responses. This research contributed to our understanding that children from different cultural environments may be learning to use language differently and may experience difficulty in participating in the language environment in classrooms. Further awareness of the role of cultural environments in the acquisition of language was influenced in the 1980s by ethnographic research techniques that were used by language researchers. Ethnographic studies have contributed significantly to our understanding of linguistic diversity. Ethnography uses participant observation in real-life settings and focuses on individuals within their social and cultural contexts. In her ethnographic study, Heath (1983) explored childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s acquisition of language at home and school in two communities in the southeastern United States. She found differences in communication in working-class black and white families as well as among middle-class townspeople of both ethnic groups. Heath also described differences in story structures, language, and sense of Ã¢â¬Å"truthÃ¢â¬ (fiction vs. nonfiction) that children learned at home that were different from those expected at school. To be successful at school, these children had to be able Ã¢â¬Å"to recognize when a story is expected to be true, when to stick to the facts, and when to use their imaginationsÃ¢â¬ (Heath, 1983, p. 294). HeathÃ¢â¬â¢s research also documented valid and authentic differences in the ways language is used and in the ways in which children in those respective communities become competent language users. Heath concluded that the contrasts she found in language were not based on race, but on complex cultural influences in each community. The importance of family context in language acquisition was more recently described by Hart and Risley (1995, 1999). Findings from their longitudinal study document the significance of Ã¢â¬Å"talkativenessÃ¢â¬ in families in influencing language acquisition rather than the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s socioeconomic status or ethnic group identity. Differences in language use were attributed to the complex family cultureÃ¢â¬ânot simply due to socioeconomic status or ethnic group identity. Among the families that were studied, the most important difference was in the amount of talking. Children in families where there was more talking developed higher levels of language in the areas of vocabulary growth and vocabulary use. These differences were strongly linked to school performance at age 9. Among these families, Hart and Risley (1995) identified five quality features in parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ language interactions with their children: 1. Language diversity: the variation and amount of nouns and modifiers used by the parents 2. Feedback tone: the positive feedback given to childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s participation in the interaction 3. Symbolic emphasis: the emphasis placed on focusing on names and associated relations of the concepts and the recall of those symbols 4. Guidance style: parental interaction that used asking rather than demanding in eliciting specific behavior from the child 5. Responsiveness: parental responsiveness to requests or questions initiated by children Hart and Risley (1995) speculated that these categories may be Ã¢â¬Å"important for the language-based analytic and symbolic competencies upon which advanced education and a global economy dependÃ¢â¬ (p. 193). A current hypothesis on why children from diverse linguistic backgrounds experience difficulty in school is the socialization mismatch hypothesis. This hypothesis Ã¢â¬Å"predicts that children are more likely to succeed in school when the home language and literacy socialization patterns are similar to those that are used and valued in schoolÃ¢â¬ (Faltis, 1998, p. 23). This hypothesis has been applied to children who speak a nonstandard English dialect as well as to children who are learning a second language. Home language socialization patterns may differ from those favored in the school classroom in the following ways (Faltis, 1998): 1. The amount of talk directed to preschool children 2. The participation of young children as conversation partners with adults 3. Opportunities children have to explain or give a personal interpretation of events 4. The types of questions asked of children during storybook sharing 5. The forms of narrative that are used (e. g. , fiction, nonfiction, or ongoing narratives) In addition, the social interaction patterns used in the classroom may vary from the home cultureÃ¢â¬â¢s with respect to expectations for competitive versus collaborative or cooperative activities as well as the Ã¢â¬Å"courtesies and conventions of conversationsÃ¢â¬ (Tharp, 1994, p. 140).
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Fatoumata Barry Kimberly Swanigan ENSL 1102 2nd April 2015 Death of a Salesman In Ã¢â¬Å"Death of a SalesmanÃ¢â¬ by Arthur Miller is a domestic tragedy that focuses on the LomanÃ¢â¬â¢ dysfunctional family. The authorÃ¢â¬â¢s approach in this story is to define tragedy through the Loman familyÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to distinguish reality from illusion, and especially the father Willy Loman whoÃ¢â¬â¢s caught up in this fantasy world he created for him and his family. This tragic flaw will lead him to his death and make him miserable in the last few hours of his life. These illusions he created in his head will make it seem like they are destined for greatness, which leads to him putting too much pressure on his first born son Biff. His relationship with Biff deteriorates little by little because of what he expects from him. He has a difficult time earning his sonÃ¢â¬â¢ respect and being a role model to him because of his actions. However, he is concerned about his relationship to his son Biff because it will mean that he failed as a fat her; and therefore the reason for his concern is that heÃ¢â¬â¢s in denial, he feels responsible for his sonÃ¢â¬â¢s failure, and he failed to accomplish the american dream. Willy Loman struggles to accept his situation due to his misconception of him being someone greater than who he really is, and denies the reality. The Loman family is living in denial except Linda who goes along with it just to make her husband not feel like heÃ¢â¬â¢s going insane. Willy is not willing to accept that he is notShow MoreRelatedDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller1387 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAmerican play-write Arthur Miller, is undoubtedly Death of a Salesman. Arthur Miller wrote Death of a Salesman in 1949 at the time when America was evolving into an economic powerhouse. Arthur Miller critiques the system of capitalism and he also tells of the reality of the American Dream. Not only does he do these things, but he brings to light the idea of the dysfunctional family. Death of a Salesman is one of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s saddest tragedies. In Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s, Death of a Salesman, three major eventsRead MoreDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller888 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDeath of a SalesmanÃ¢â¬ is a play written by Arthur Miller in the year 1949. The play revolves around a desperate salesman, Willy Loman. Loman is delusioned and most of the things he does make him to appear as a man who is living in his own world away from other people. He is disturbed by the fact that he cannot let go his former self. His wife Linda is sad and lonely; his youngest son Biff is presented as a swinger/player while his eldest son Happy appears anti-business and confused by the behaviorRead MoreDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller1573 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesrepresents a character with a tragic flaw leading to his downfall. In addition, in traditional tragedy, the main character falls from high authority and often it is predetermined by fate, while the audience experiences catharsis (Bloom 2). A rthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s play Death of a Salesman is considered to be a tragedy because this literary work has some of the main characteristics of the tragedy genre. In this play, the main character Willy Loman possesses such traits and behaviors that lead to his downfall, and theRead MoreDeath of Salesman by Arthur Miller972 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn the play Death of a Salesman by the playwright Arthur Miller, the use of names is significant to the characters themselves. Many playwrights and authors use names in their works to make a connection between the reader and the main idea of their work. Arthur Miller uses names in this play extraordinarily. Not only does Miller use the names to get readers to correlate them with the main idea of the play, but he also uses names to provide some irony to the play. Miller uses the meanings of someRead MoreDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller1628 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesArthur Miller wrote the Pulitzer Prize winning play Death of a Salesman in 194 9. The play inflated the myth of the American Dream of prosperity and recognition, that hard work and integrity brings, but the play compels the world to see the ugly truth that capitalism and the materialistic world distort honesty and moral ethics. The play is a guide toward contemporary themes foreseen of the twentieth century, which are veiled with greed, power, and betrayal. MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s influence with the play spreadRead MoreDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller949 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDeath of a Salesman can be described as modern tragedy portraying the remaining days in the life of Willy Loman. This story is very complex, not only because of itÃ¢â¬â¢s use of past and present, but because of WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s lies that have continued to spiral out of control throughout his life. Arthur Miller puts a modern twist on AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of ancient Greek tragedy when Willy LomanÃ¢â¬â¢s life story directly identifies the fatal flaw of the Ã¢â¬Å"American DreamÃ¢â¬ . Willy LomanÃ¢â¬â¢s tragic flaw can be recappedRead MoreThe Death Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller846 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesA Dime a Dozen The Death of a Salesman is a tragedy written by playwright Arthur Miller and told in the third person limited view. The play involves four main characters, Biff, Happy, Linda, and Willy Loman, an ordinary family trying to live the American Dream. Throughout the play however, the family begins to show that through their endeavors to live the American Dream, they are only hurting their selves. The play begins by hinting at WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s suicidal attempts as the play begins with Linda askingRead MoreDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller Essay2538 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesSurname 1 McCain StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s Name: InstructorÃ¢â¬â¢s Name: Course: Date: Death of a Salesman Death of a salesman is a literature play written by American author Arthur Miller. The play was first published in the year 1949 and premiered on Broadway in the same year. Since then, it has had several performances. It has also received a lot of accordances and won numerous awards for its literature merit including the coveted Pulitzer for drama. The play is regarded by many critics as the perfectRead MoreDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller2081 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages#1 Ã¢â¬Å"Death of a SalesmanÃ¢â¬ by Arthur Miller is a tragedy, this play has only two acts and does not include scenes in the acts. Instead of cutting from scene to scene, there is a description of how the lighting focuses on a different place or time-period, which from there, they continue on in a different setting. The play doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t go in chronological order. A lot of the play is present in WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s flashbacks or memories of events. This provides an explanation of why the characters are acting a certainRead MoreDeath Of Salesman By Arthur Miller1475 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesto death to achieve their so- called American dream. They live alone and there is no love of parents and siblings. They may have not noticed the America dream costs them so much, which will cause a bigger regret later. In the play Death of Salesman, Arthur Miller brings a great story of a man who is at very older age and still works hard to achieve his desire, which is the American dream. Later, he no tices that his youth is gone and there is less energy in his body. Willy Loman is a salesman, who